Combined Skating
Combined skating has its roots in England in the second half of the 19th century. It is a form of skating in which four or six, possibly more skaters skate together. One of the four is nominated as the caller and it is his duty to specify in a clear voice the figures to be skated. Everyone in the group must be well acquainted with the individual figures called and be fairly proficient otherwise the group effort will fail.

The pleasures of combined skating are two-fold. It is pleasurable to the individual forming part of a set and it is is pleasurable from the feeling that he is contributing to the amusement of the other skaters forming the set.

The most usual way to skate a combined figure is for the four skaters to stand opposite each other one at each corner of an imaginary square. The pair of which the caller is one, on the figure being called, start first and pass each other at the centre and the second pair start as soon as they can without colliding with the first pair crossing them at right angles. The spot from which the skaters radiate from and return to is called the centre and is usually marked by an orange but a handful of snow will serve when an orange is not available.

Rules
1. The caller sets the time, speed and mode of skating all figures and must be accurately followed by the
    other skaters.
2. Every movement of a call shall be commenced on the outside edge unless inside be specified.
3. Whenever the foot is changed in a figure the term 'and' shall be used to denote that change.
4. The centre shall not be approached before the end of a figure unleess one of the words 'centre', 'pass' or
     'meet' be inserted in the call.
5. The centre shall always be kept outside the curve on which it is approached unless the word 'off' is
     called when it shall be kept inside the curve.'
6. The centre shall be kept inside the curve on which it is left on commencing a new set of figures which
     shall be begun on the right foot unless otherwise specified.

     Below are some examples of the hundreds of combinations possible.
Forward two Qs out and forward two Qs in
Twice back, and forward centre-change-reverse-bracket-Q and forward
Twice back and forward change
Twice back and forward three and forward large inside three
Forward Q out, back Q in, centre change, inside forward Q out, inside back Q in
Once back, and forward Choctaw, and inside forward
Once back and forward, and inside forward three, back centre rocker entire
Once back, and forward reverse centre change Q, back rocker and forward
Once back, and forward centre counter, back rocker
Sources
A System of Figure Skating. Vandervell & Witham 1874
The Badminton Library. Heathcote, Tebbutt & Witham 1892
Figure Skating Simple and Combined. Montagu S. Monier-Williams, W.Randell Pidgeon & A.Dryden 1892